Tag Archives: governance

Why Am I Passionately Espousing Family Governance?

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Samsung

Samsung Electronics, the crown jewel of the Samsung group, has reported record profits despite Lee’s arrest in February and a damaging recall for Galaxy Note 7 phones that were prone to battery fires. The financial success was largely thanks to events set in motion by Lee’s father in the 1990s. The elder Lee made the decision to break into the memory chip industry and followed up with massive and risky investments that rivals could not match every year.

Those investments are paying off. Samsung, the world’s largest maker of memory chips for servers, mobile devices and computers, was the biggest beneficiary of supply constraints and explosive demand for mobile devices that pushed up prices.

Longer term, however, some analysts see risks for Samsung and its flagship Samsung Electronics.

“South Korea’s chaebol system is similar to monarchy,” said Park, the Seoul National University professor. “In the monarchy system, you need a king.”

There is also potential for a destabilizing family feud over inheritance when the elder Lee dies.

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Over the past seven years, our firm, W+B Family Business advisory has been spearheading family and business governance in Asia.

Most of our alliance partners in the business sector and the academe in North America, Indonesia and Singapore have referred to our vigorous campaign as “relentless”.

In our head office, we modestly refer to our work as the “W+B Method”.  International clients have acknowledged our method as best in class and we solely look at it as our compelling value proposition.

Why is W+B vigorously campaigning to promote Governance?

It is a race against time. We have witnessed first-hand, emotionally charged families being torn apart because of rivalry, greed, envy, vengeance and sometimes senseless loss of human lives.

There have been quite a number of cases where family members would “kidnap” a parent allegedly suffering from dementia in order to prevent an asset sale or overthrow a sibling in power or seeing siblings conspire in forging documents so they can surreptitiously sell assets.

I have experienced several cases where I had to enforced disciplinary action and initiate expulsion of family members engaged in self-dealing, conflict of interest transactions and in rare cases absconding with large amounts of money.

These are unfortunate but live cases of family conflict! When the battle lines are drawn, you can expect discord among family members, sometimes violent confrontations, parents inconsolable and confused, and the business on the brink of a major setback or at worse, imploding.

Without any doubt, as Family business advisors, we have the herculean responsibility to intervene and affect the governance process because it is the way forward and the right thing to do.

To quote a Bloomberg report related to the never-ending family drama unfolding at Samsung:

“Sabotage, espionage, succession battles, and sibling rivalries — it sounds like a season of “Game of Thrones.” But it’s the real-life drama of the Lee family, the Korean dynasty that founded Samsung with wealth equal to 17% of the country’s GDP.

It’s a fragile situation. If successor Lee Jae doesn’t navigate this right, there are family members waiting to take his spot.“

Currently, Lee Jae is in jail and family members and non-family shareholders are allegedly plotting separately to let him stay in jail for good.

Governance Intervention Must Be Holistic

Our coaching interventions are straightforward. As a Senior Advisor, my role is to articulate very important and purposive set of ideas and beliefs before any actual engagement. The key is to educate and prepare members for the journey toward corporate governance.

Educating family members is critical. The willingness and readiness of every family member to go through the process is equally vital.

Finally, the advisor’s role is to underscore the importance of embracing pre-work rules before starting the process of change. These are the following:

a. Governance and Succession is non-negotiable.

b.Size of the business is immaterial.

c.The bigger the number of family members, the more complex it can become.

d.Intervention should be on the 3 circles (Family, Business and Ownership). Each circle has its own unique characteristics so a tailor-fitted approach must be in place.

e.Procrastination is like a thief of time. Delaying governance further can increase the volatility of the family and the business.

f.Age is a factor. As the founder and the business leader ages, succession and related issues in a multi generational family can offer more challenges.

g.Compliance of the rules and activation of the Governance Councils as enshrined in the constitution is non-negotiable.

(esoriano@wongadvisory.com)

*****

http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/ct-samsung-prison-qa-20170825-story.html

 

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Padre Noble, Hijo Rico, Nieto Pobre

Sept 25

Governance

As the family and business grow and become more complex, the need for effective governance structures increases. A well structured governance system promotes harmony within the family and business, improves communication and promotes accountability.

Governance defines a process and structure for decision making within each of the systems involved in a family business – family, business, ownership.

Essentially, governance encourages the right people to have the right conversations at the right time.

Effective governance is critical to the long-term success of any organization. This is especially true for family run businesses where the complex dynamics that accompany overlapping family, business and ownership interests can often create conflict where none need exist.

 

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“Father Founder of the company, Son Rich, and Grandson Poor” is Mexico’s powerful equivalent to Asia’s popular saying about family-owned businesses, “Wealth Shall Not Last Three Generations”!

Citing an article penned by Lee Iwan, a leading Business Strategist in Mexico, he avers that the “founder works and builds a business, the son takes over and is poorly prepared to manage and make it grow but enjoys the wealth, and the grandson inherits a dead business and pronto an empty bank account.”

Family Governance Is Non Negotiable

I always reiterate that the first step towards governance is for family members to be cognizant of the major causes of the tension. Second, after identifying the source, the family with the assistance of a family business advisor, proactively work to ensure that adequate measures are adopted so that those conflicts do not spillover to the other circles (John Davis et. al. Three Circle Model). Lastly, if there are differences, they must not be avoided. This will only postpone the issue and create bigger problems in the future.

I strongly encourage the patriarch/matriarch not to waste time in pursuing the governance process. Your action now can help your grandchildren avert not just going back to being part of the “poorhouse” but the ignominy of causing the demise of the family business during their watch.

But to be truthful and fair about the wealth dissipation issue as to which generation caused the demise of the business? The blame lies on the failure or inaction of the first and second generation to initiate governance and succession early.

Tension is Normal in a Transition

When governance is initiated, natural tensions occur as they cannot be avoided. In fact, if there is no tension, it can mean that family members are passive, incompetent, either not thinking or trying to improve or have no power to assert. All of which are equally red flags that a family business will not last.

With any multi-generational transition, you can anticipate tension. With more family members, you can expect more complex family issues emerging that will further exacerbate and breed more tension.

It is important that Family Business governance be set in motion, where rules and expectations are articulated and compliance integrated in the family ecosystem.

It is equally important to note that “every single-owner enterprise passed through various stages of transition and the process improvement is dispersed over time”. But when issues that cause strain and conflict remain unsolved during the governance initiatives, you can expect many of these challenges to manifest and re-appear when the second and subsequent generations enter the business.

The 3 Components of Family Governance

In a Harvard Business Review article with the same title penned by noted Family Business Professor, Dr. John Davies, he adeptly highlights 3 components of Family Governance:

a. Periodic assemblies of the family

b. Family council meetings for those families that benefit from a representative group of their members doing planning, creating policies, and strengthening business-family communication and bond.

c. A family constitution—the family’s policies and guiding vision and values that regulate members’ relationship with the business.

He further points out that for governance to be effective, there should be a working family assembly and family council that focuses on the roles and responsibilities of family members. He outlines the critical areas:

  • These are clarity on family member roles and rights.
  • Actions of Family members, family employees, and family owners to act responsibly toward the business and the family.
  • Regulate appropriate family and owner inclusion in business discussions.

 

(esoriano@wongadvisory.com)

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http://www.mcgowangroupinc.com/services/governance/

The destructive effect of poor succession planning (Part 2)

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Ensuring the solvency of a family business

Note that succession planning is not about just sending the second and third generation to the top schools. It’s about careful career planning and skill development, and more importantly, it is about making sure that the core processes in the company, including governance, communications and decision making, are such that they support succession planning. Key areas that often are in the center of this are intra-company communication routines, decision-making processes, documentation, and sharing of information.

Corporate governance, growing pains, and your family business 

Instilling corporate governance into the business model is more of a mandatory thing, rather than just a benefit. Without proper governance, a company (be it family-owned or not), can simply not survive.

The growing pains are that usually switching from the first generation “entrepreneurial” style to proper professional grade succession planning requires a major change in mindset.  Sometimes this is only possible in conjunction with the actual generation shift. However, it is much better if succession planning and governance are already addressed within the time of the first generation. This way the process is smoother and has a better likelihood of success, success including also preserving good relationships across the family members throughout the process.

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While some initiatives in my previous article including the list below are instinctively noble, Family Business author Dr. Fan refers to these leader aspirations as “wishful thinking”.

a. Family gene pool is limited but Patriarch is not keen on hiring Non Family professionals

b. Typical of founders, they would express their desire to retire but the patriarchal shadow continues to cloud the next generation members’ decision-making

c. They apportion their wealth equally resulting to a divisive and disunited next generation shareholder group where decisions are stalled

d. Patriarch will delay succession plans because of the fear of losing control

In most cases, family members who have been sheltered often want to sell the business and move on right after the death of the patriarch or matriarch.

Similarly, some leaders (especially the conservative owners) even pass away without making a will. This leads to bitter feuds and will be even more complicated and severe if the founder has several wives.

Flying Away from the Nest

Finally, with the patriarch gone, the untrained and entitled next generation members will end up clashing amongst themselves.

Limited decision making and the lack of any form of hardship experience while growing up under the shadows of their overprotective parents will take its toll on the business.

With their roles undefined for years, there is the likelihood that heirs will be confused amplified by an unproven management skills set.

Compounding the lack of preparation is when they discover that the business has liabilities (debt load) and a looming creditor intervention to exact pressure on the new leadership.

With all the problems besetting the enterprise, the natural option for heirs will be to opt out by selling their shares, effectively absolving them of any form of “hard work”. In the end, the preference to just “live the good life”becomes insatiable.

Can the bleak situation still be reversed?

This scenario is repeated many times, thus it is no secret that business owners go through many sleepless nights blaming themselves for creating entitled children.

I consider this pervasive problem one of the biggest dangers faced by family businesses in Asia where owners attempt to self-medicate by way of offering more perks to family members hoping to motivate them. The problem is in the manner the perks are equally distributed whether to the deserving, capable or inept. The other problem is whether the perks should be given in the first place.

This practice will certainly guarantee failure after failure as the incentive will translate to more entitlement for the next generation of untrained family members.

It now becomes a vicious cycle of generational tension and sibling rivalries. In the end, the business owner will end up struggling with governance, leadership transitions, ownership conflicts and even survival.

At this juncture when the patriarch or matriarch, by reason of age, rushes the process of turning over the business to the next generation and discovers their ineffective or feeble judgements, the parent will end up extending his reign until he succumbs to pressure, old age, stress and death.

There is Still Time to Exact Good Governance

It is absolutely impossible for family businesses to manage internal talent (both family and non-family) and or attract the best non-family professionals without setting up a governance best practices program.

The key is to separate the family and the business and ensure independent oversight from a professional board.

To be continued…

(esoriano@wongadvisory.com)

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LINK:

https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/254614

 

The Destructive Effect of Poor Succession Planning

sept 11

Yu Pang-lin

A property mogul has decided to donate his entire £1.2 billion pound fortune to charity, leaving his wife and kids with nothing.

He had a special interest in helping those with cataracts in their eyes. Since 2003, his foundation has helped restore the sight of more than 300,000 people from more than 20 provinces and autonomous regions across China, including some poverty-stricken areas in Qinghai, Gansu, Yunnan and Guizhou provinces.

Yu attributed his desire to help others with his experiences as a young man. In the 1940s, Yu had worked as a journalist and an editor for a newspaper, learning about the hardships of people in poverty. He moved to Hong Kong in 1958, and made a living in the early years with many jobs, including as a cleaner, handyman and construction worker. He later founded his own real estate company, then expanded to other areas, including tourism, hotels and healthcare.

In the 1980s, Yu started donating money to build schools, emergency centres, public bus routes, tunnels, fountains and other infrastructure projects. In 2007, he was on the list of world’s top philanthropists selected by Time magazine.

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“If my children are more capable than me, it’s not necessary to leave a lot of money to them. If they are incompetent, a lot of money will only be harmful to them,”

Hong Kong Real Estate Billionaire Yu Pang-lin

Yu is the founder of the Yu Pang-lin Foundation dedicated to healthcare, education and disaster relief. He was believed to be China’s first billionaire to donate an entire fortune to charity.

Alarming Number of Family Business Failures

In my work as Family Business coach doing the rounds in Asia the past five years, I have witnessed a rapid increase of family business disputes bitterly adjudicated in courtrooms because of poor governance and harmful wealth and ownership distribution.

In a Family Enterprise Trend report by my consulting firm, W+B Family Advisory, it researched on the average age of business owners who are going through “rush” transitions.

The study showed more than half were 70 years old or more. The firm also identified the top five major sources of dispute:

1. Money as a result of ownership misalignment and wealth distribution

2. Control and Power struggle among siblings and or cousins

3. Poor succession programs that bred conflict

4. Wrong policies related compensation, dividend policies and incentive programs

5. Employment for everyone. Despite their lack of experience and competence, family members are thrust into leadership positions because of their surnames

Summarizing the report and analyzing why conflict and tension happens among these enterprises, it highlighted the following findings:

“Business owners in general procrastinated and did not see the urgency of initiating governance in the early stages of the business cycle. They were just too busy growing the business.

In the latter stages when health issues surface often and disagreements were becoming frequent, owners would suddenly realize that the children were not prepared to assume full control of the business when they (parents) are no longer around. In short, there was a very high probability that these family enterprises were headed to separation due to internal squabbles.”

Litigation Can Scar Family Relationshipsfor Life

My role as governance coach is to prevent and deter senseless and unnecessary family tension from escalating into a full blown and irreversible family feud. That if left to feed on its own, will spill over and convert the courtroom into the next family battleground.

With the exception of lawyers from both sides, nobody wins in a messy litigation process. They are just plain expensive, personal and can scar relationships for life.

Inevitably, whatever comes out of any court case can produce a debilitating effect not just on warring family members but also on the financial state of the enterprise.

Why is conflict pervasive?

As the business leader or visionary gets old, he or she has to naturally pass on the business to the heirs. Unfortunately, many of these owner managers follow certain traditions to a fault.

a. They do not want to see their own business empire falling apart as a result of division of wealth

b. They want their children to stay together in harmony so they can continue the business

c. They have very strong preference towards their male offspring to carry the mandate in the next generational cycle

d. But they are not open to Non family professionals joining the business

e. There are no entry and exit rules for family members and in-laws

To be continued…

(esoriano@wongadvisory.com)

 

Businesses Must Aspire to Reach 100 years (Part 2)

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Cosmos Bottling Corporation

One of the more popular alternative soda brands in the Philippines after the war was a product of the Manila Aerated Water Factory, located on Misericordia St., Manila. It was founded way back in 1918 by Wong Ning, a Guangdong native who migrated to the Philippines.

The eldest of his 7 children—Henry Gao-Hong Wong—rebuilt the business post-war and renamed it in 1945 as COSMOS Bottling Corporation. Cosmos is the first softdrink manufacturer in the country.

Among its branded products include Pop Cola, Sarsi, Cheers Lemon, Orange and Ruby, Jaz Cola and Sparkle. Sarsi and Sarsi Light are directed at the Class A and B markets while Pop, Jaz, Sparkle and Cheers brands are primarily marketed to the Class C and D segments.

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TORONTO, CANADA According to the Family Business Institute, only 30% of Family Business organizations last into the second generation, 12% remain viable into the third, and 3% operate into the fourth generation or beyond.

Family businesses face major challenges in working through ownership and management succession and family business leaders acknowledge the problem. However, few know where and how to develop a Governance and Succession plan. Let me continue part 2 of the article.

b. The Romero Group, a Philippine conglomerate with interests in construction and port services, got thrown into a turmoil when the son allegedly refused to cede control of the port business to his father. This led to a volley of court cases filed between them amid allegations of fraud, betrayal and financial improprieties. The son was a co-faculty at the ATENEO Graduate School of Business in the late 90’s and the father, a colleague in another business association. Common friends asked me to intervene but it was too late. The lawyers were already swapping accusations and the courts ended up taking over jurisdiction over the brewing conflict.

c. Another Philippine company is Manila Cosmos Aerated Factory, a beverage company started by Wong Ning in 1918 and successfully steered by the second generation only to fail in the third generation due to the sudden death of the patriarch and the lack of succession planning. This led to a power struggle between the uncles and the cousins ending with a sell-out to the RFM Group. Cosmos would have celebrated their 100th year next year. The third generation leader, Prof Danny is one of W+B’s Family Business advisor.

d. Family conflict is universal. In the US, the New England grocery chain Market Basket faced six weeks of mounting employee protests losing a hefty $583 million in sales as two cousins-both grandsons of the founder—publicly and bitterly fought for control of the company. The employees refuse to follow the directives of the newly installed CEO after removing his cousin Arthur T. Demoulas.  With pressure coming to a head, the feud ended with Arthur T, initiating a buyout and reclaiming his old post as CEO of Market Basket.

I have written in my column successful cases of family owned businesses overcoming hardship and triumphantly extending the founders legacy (Eu Yan Sang, Royal Selangor).

Visionaries need not go through the same periods of adversity.To preserve their wealth, theymust initiate governance and succession at the onset and not when they are old, sickly and dying.

Imagine the benefit, if the company mastered the art and science of governance, people management, leadership development, and succession practices?

Imagine the enormous rewards, if governance is reinforced with a shared vision supported with powerful values that the founder passed on to the next generation.

Imagine legacy-building benefits, if the founder put in motion the training of the next generation leaders so they can wholeheartedly embrace the value of fairness and meritocracy and the importance of making decisions based on “what is good for the company”.

The real challenge is to make every family member and future stakeholders understand early on the all-important concept of stewardship rather than ownership.

How? By learning from the best in their class… large family-owned businesses and their leaders that have defied the odds, went through rough patches in the second generation, summoned extraordinary strength to set things right, and deftly overcoming the third generation curse. They continue to prosper with some becoming certified century-old organizations.

Governance and Succession is non-negotiable. It is your wonderful gift to the next generation!

(esoriano@wongadvisory.com)

 

Family Businesses Must Aspire to Reach 100 years (Part 1)

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Ayala Corporation

Ayala Corporation is the holding company of one of the oldest and largest business groups in the Philippines. Ayala has leadership positions in real estate, financial services, telecommunications, water infrastructure, electronics manufacturing, automotive distributorship and dealership, and business process outsourcing, and new investments in power generation, transport infrastructure, and education.

Year started: 1834

Number of Employees: 35,073

Annual Sales: $4,194.97M (2016)

Net Income: $547.74M (2016)

In a disclosure to the Philippine Stock Exchange (PSE) on Friday, August 11, AC reported a net income of P15.1 billion for January to June this year, compared to the P13.8 billion in the same period in 2016.

“A journey of a thousand li starts beneath one’s feet” is a common saying that originated from a famous Chinese proverb. The “starts beneath one’s feet” in family business parlance is governance. And governance is all about rules, policies, systems and accountability. In short governance is all about institutionalizing control and decision making.  As the 8th Generation successor, Jaime Augusto Zobel de Ayala, Chair of Ayala Corporation puts it…

“It is important to teach each new generation, early on, the difference between ownership and stewardship. Ownership is a right of possession. Stewardship is a fiduciary role. It is holding the institution in ‘trust for’ the next generation. We feel, as a family, that this institution has been passed on to us for our care and not for us to dissipate or do what we will with it for our personal gain.”

Ayala Corporation (AC) was founded in 1834 and is the oldest family business in the Philippines. That makes AC 183 years old.

Governance is uppermost in everybody’s mind today. But governance can be a difficult and extremely challenging act for family business owners.

According to a PWC report, “no matter what their size, the unique—and often volatile—mix of personal family dynamics, business strategy and ownership criteria can create an emotionally charged environment that makes decision-making, not to mention day-to-day management, challenging. And as the founding generation ages, succession and power issues across an expanding family can create cascading concerns.”

In my previous articles, I narrated a number of highly successful Family enterprises in Asia and researched on their history as well as their transformation as Asia’s gold standard in governance and succession. Without any doubt, these companies exhibited remarkable parallelism worth sharing over and over again.

What made these businesses tick? What were the qualities of the leaders that made them endure family tension, betrayal, adversity and conflict? Was it pure luck that they overcame a bitter feud? What was their secret to longevity?

It is a fact that all family businesses struggle with governance and succession with some even facing untold hardship and survival. Take the case of the Eu Yan Sang Family Business that was established in the late 1870’s.

Before the fourth-generation Eu family members engineered a buyout what was originally their family business, the family had to endure a tumultuous period starting with the murder of the wife of the successor by her in laws in the second-generation, an escalating conflict in the third generation with 13 uncles fighting for the spoils of the businesses and a volatile fourth generation involving 72 cousins.

If not for the daring move of the fourth-generation cousins led by investment banker Richard Eu, who engineered a buyout, Eu Yan Sang would have ended in their generation. With rules in place, Eu Yan Sang is now managed by a combination of fourth-generation descendants and professional managers and the growth has been phenomenal.

It is also noteworthy to consider some high-profile families in Asia that got embroiled in senseless and unnecessary conflict. For many, they ended in failure. For some, they were able to overcome the bitter rivalry and went on to strengthen their organizations.  I have compiled a handful of cases involving conflicts so owners, who are currently feeling the tension pervading within the family and the business, will realize the need to seek immediate intervention from family experts.

a. Mayfull Foods Corporation of Taiwan by far is the most violent and tragic family conflict recorded in Taiwan and probably in Asia. Gunshots rang out after a regular corporate meeting where the topic of inheritance was being discussed. Six brothers of the late tycoon Huang Jung-tu were present. The shooting resulted in the death of the two brothers. When the police arrived, the gunman ended up killing himself before falling from the 7th floor of their company’s headquarters. In one fell swoop, three brothers ended up dead in what police investigators called a pre meditated murder-suicide.

To be continued…

(esoriano@wongadvisory.com)

 

Role Confusion Can Lead to Disastrous Results

I am now sharing the last half of Benny’s email (the 37 year old grandson and eldest 3rd Generation family member), that he sent to me together with his Easter Sunday greeting:

“Prof, despite our imperfections and the family members’ stubborn nature (it is in our DNA), we are grateful that you never gave up on us. Collectively as a family, we are more than determined not to let this governance opportunity pass and we are absolutely committed to pursue our role as stewards aiming for 100 years or more!

So, in behalf of the family, our second-generation leaders and my third-generation cousins, we sincerely thank you for believing in us. 

We look forward to the next Family Council meeting next month!”

Positive feedback like this one I received on Easter Sunday lifts my spirit and emboldens me to continue my advocacy of helping family businesses in Asia.

The Goal of 100 years is Unfolding

Now the C Family is united in its vision of becoming a family-inspired enterprise. The family is now on its way towards fulfilling the founder’s dream in building a legacy that promotes harmony, growth through strategy, professionalism, free from petty conflicts, supported with mutual covenants and a powerful set of values reinforced with legally enforceable shareholder’s agreements!

Governance work is about compliance and it is challenging. There is no guarantee that the ride will be smooth.  As a matter of fact, it will have its twists and turns but their journey to becoming a world class family enterprise will no longer be elusive.

The C Family Crisis mirrors 90 % of the World’s Family Enterprises

Without any form of proper mentoring related to governance and role definition, these next generation family members will end up managing non-family employees with disastrous results.

Additionally, family member entitlement is oftentimes a result of a confused role when these children crosses over from a purely family member role to a family member employee or shareholder role.

By observing how the patriarch (matriarch) or other senior generation family members gives out orders and discipline subordinates, the new family member employee will naturally imitate these behaviors and the senior leader’s management style. Good thing some of the family members realized that an intervention was needed so a looming crisis was averted. It would have been the beginning of the end for the C Family Business.

Solutions Must Be Long-Term

A non-executive Shareholder or family member who is active in the business but with an “owner mentality” mindset is naturally unreasonable and may demand the use of company resources or to impose his or her will on employees in how to behave.

Such role confusion can often be clarified by conducting a series of educational forums initiated by a Family Business facilitator in which the boundaries of appropriate and inappropriate shareholder behavior are clearly explained. Depending on the planning area where intervention is urgent and immediate, I am suggesting critical planning areas to choose from:

1. Family Governance and Succession Planning as a prelude to the Crafting of the Family Constitution where the topics covered will be the natural transition to the next generation members and the predictable problems that goes with the transition

2. Business and Growth Planning entails the formulation of a Strategic Plan that will serve as the family business’ 3 to 5-year vision and growth plan. The option to do an IPO, if the family members are receptive, can be discussed in this forum.

3. Ownership Plan addresses key topics that clarifies the roles of owners, management and the board level family members

(esoriano@wongadvisory.com)

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Prof. Soriano is a National Agora Awardee for Marketing Excellence, an ASEAN Family Business Advisor, Book Author and Executive Director of ASEAN-based Consulting group, W+B Strategic Advisory. He is also an International Business Lecturer and Professor at the Ateneo Graduate School of Business.
He is the author of two bestselling books related to Family Business Governance and Succession.
Those interested to order can call the W+B Group 09228603186 and look for Ms. Aira.